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INDIAN SUBCONTINENT – IDENTITY CRISIS

All religions except Hinduism are based on one figurehead, one book, his teachings and certain belief systems. Christianity is based on Christ, Bible and Christ teachings. Similarly Islam is based on Mohammed Sahib, Quran and his teachings. These great personalities developed the meaning of books and certain belief systems. Later on their followers explained the further elaboration and some more belief systems. During translation or explanation of these works, their followers kept in view the available social practices and developed various treatises on these two great religions. Naturally they could not stop themselves to include their own views and opinions in these explanatory books and references. For example a type of Muslim book is a treatise on how to conduct this life which was based on the social conditions. Naturally social conditions and social problems, and thinking played a major role in framing these rules. The teachings and the language which was spoken by the founders was so complicated that strict explanation is next to impossible. Only Hinduism cannot claim any single founder or single book. There are billions and billions of Gods, another billion references and books, millions and millions of life styles and thinking process and yet all are Hindus. Only a Hindu is having full freedom to criticize their Gods and religious books, saints and seers but they do not lose their Hindu tag. Like other religion, Hindus are also having their own belief systems.

All religions and castes have their own history of origin and they draw the strength from the origin, founder to whom they can claim their ancestry with trials and tribulations. They can relate their existence to a particular story and History with only one exception, Indian subcontinent Muslims.

Indian subcontinent Muslims (Today 60 Crores) are always in various mental states which are parallel at the same time simultaneous in nature, think that they are Arab’s (today less than 3 crore) descendants or Mughals descendants or Mongolian’s (today 30 Lakhs).

To counteract this, Muslims scholars say that they are from Arabs. But this cannot be a truth as Arabs invaded India’s Sindh region in 7th century for less than a decade. So they cannot be from Arabs (today 3 crore). During Haz, Indian and Pakistani Muslims to be called as Hindavi Muslims. The Arabs also suspect their identity.

Indian subcontinent Muslims then claim their heritage from Mughals and take a pride that Mughals, their ancestors ruled India (Hindus) for 800 years. Who were the Mughals.

Mughal dynasty, Mughal also spelled Mogul, Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. The dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Babur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side. Ousted from his ancestral domain in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his appetite for conquest. From his base in Kabul (Afghanistan) he was able to secure control of the Punjab region, and in 1526 he routed the forces of the Delhi sultan Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat. The following year he overwhelmed the Rajput confederacy under Rana Sanga of Mewar, and in 1529 he defeated the Afghans of what are now eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states. At his death in 1530 he controlled all of northern India from the Indus River on the west to Bihar on the east and from the Himalayas south to Gwalior.

Babur’s son Humayun (reigned 1530–40 and 1555–56) lost control of the empire to Afghan rebels, but Humayun’s son Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) defeated the Hindu usurper Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (1556) and thereby re established his dynasty in Hindustan. Akbar reestablished and consolidated the Mughal Empire. At Akbar’s death in 1605 the empire extended from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and southward to what is now Gujarat state and the northern Deccan region (peninsular India).

Akbar’s son Jahangir (reigned 1605–27) continued both his father’s administrative system. His son, Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–58).His reign marked the cultural zenith of Mughal rule, but his military expeditions brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707). Aurangzeb annexed the Muslim Deccan kingdoms of Vijayapura (Bijapur) and Golconda and thereby brought the empire to its greatest extent, but his political and religious intolerance laid the seeds of its decline. He excluded Hindus from public office and destroyed their schools and temples, while his persecution of the Sikhs of the Punjab turned that sect against Muslim rule and roused rebellions among the Rajputs, Sikhs, and Marathas. The heavy taxes he levied steadily impoverished the farming population, and a steady decay in the quality of Mughal government was thus matched by a corresponding economic decline. When Aurangzeb died in 1707, he had failed to crush the Marathas of the Deccan, and his authority was disputed throughout his dominions.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719–48), the empire began to break up, a process hastened by dynastic warfare, factional rivalries, and the Iranian conqueror Nadir Shah’s brief but disruptive invasion of northern India in 1739. After the death of Muhammad Shah in 1748, the Marathas overran almost all of northern India. Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control. The last Mughal, Bahadur Shah II (reigned 1837–57), was exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Rangoon, Burma) by the British after his involvement with the Indian Mutiny of 1857–58.The present thinking that Mughals ruled India for 800 years is a misnomer which lasted only for 300 years.

These Mughal rulers and their families might have been few thousands, how they can be transformed to 60 Crores plus. A complete dark chapter.

The third mystery is that Indian subcontinent   Muslims consider themselves as descendants of Mongols. Mongolians were not Muslims. The Mughals means Mongolians who are having their typical facial characteristics of Mongolians. Due to appeasement politics, they were given name Mughals to Mongolians. What was number of their Mongolian soldiers who invaded Indian subcontinent. Not more than 30–50 thousands. Population of their native country Mongolia is 30 lakhs (3 million) today in 2017.  Babar (grandfather of Akbar) was direct descendant of Timur Lung and Genghis Khan. Genghis khan ruled complete Asia (except India) from China to Central Asia, Turkey, Arab countries, Iran, Iraq, Some parts of Russia, Europe. All Khan except from China (Yuan Dynasty by Kublai Khan, Genghis’s grandson) all became Muslim. Even Taimur Lang (Genghis’s descendant) and Babar practice sometimes Islamic and sometimes Mongolian culture according to convenience. Some Shia (Ismaili, Bohra) Muslims who ran away from Egypt are of Egypt descent. Later on a Sufi culture emanated from tolerant Muslims which attracted large numbers of Non-Muslims also.

Identity politics generally operates with the question of how different cultures would somehow manage to live together and infer how possible registers a reconcilement among a multitude of different identity-based claims for difference with a common sense of lived community and identity. Identity politics signifies a broad domain of the political alignments which focus on self-interest and perspectives of the complex social minorities, or self-identified social interest groups. It could also be argued that not all the members of any given group are not necessarily involved in the domain of identity politics.

Politics of recognition or simply the politics of difference carried a potential for the political conflicts because it resolved less around the choices and preferences but more or less around the claims of identity on behalf of the minorities in India.

The crisis of identity acquires a greater significance in the sense that unless the identity crisis is resolved in a manner acceptable to the members of different groups, the crisis could not be resolved. An identity crisis occurs when a community finds that what it had once unquestionably accepted as the physical and psychological definitions of its collective self, are no acceptable under new historical conditions. Huntington’s thesis has been criticized for underestimating the homogenizing effect of economic development and also people’s receptivity to cross-cultural influences.

India’s identity politics is basically internally drafted and driven. Globalization has wider impact on its economy and consumption patterns, but the basic determinants of changes in India’s identity, politics largely remain domestic. It is quite clear that Indian politics during the present century, including identity politics is influenced by international developments. It is quite apt to discuss on how to understand identity politics in a plural or multicultural society and what the enduring features of India’s identity politics are during the 21st century.

Various authors try to elaborately discuss on post-secular societies that marks a change where religion becomes an important maker of identity resulting in a kind of coexistence with secular ethos and the religion and religious communities in the public sphere. The changes that occurred in self-perception and social representation had larger impact on the questions of religion and community assertions. But the still to be answered question remains whom Indian subcontinent Muslims treat their forefathers and ancestors. Though it shall be impossible task for Indian subcontinent Muslims but that is the only solution is to forget about their ancestry and assimilate them in to Indian culture of brotherhood, love and compassion.

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